Medulloblastoma are types of tumors, which represent approximately 20 percent of childhood brain tumors, are thought to arise from undeveloped stem cells of the cerebellum, located near the middle of the back of the head. The cerebellum controls balance, posture and movement.
Gliomas represent 84 percent of all brain tumors. A common form of primary brain tumor, gliomas arise from cells called glial cells that surround and support the neurons of the brain. There are three types of glial cells, further distinguished as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells.
Types of Gliomas:
Neurofibromatosis is a syndrome of an abnormality in a gene that leads to tumors. This condition, which affects the nervous system, causes tumors to grow on nerves. It can either be a genetic disorder or a genetic mutation. The tumors are usually benign and grow on nerves, as well as on and under the skin. Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which can present symptoms as early as at birth, can affect the skin, bones and brain. Type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) frequently starts in the teenage years, and causes poor balance, ringing in the ears and hearing loss.
NF1, the more common type, accounts for 90 percent of cases associated with gliomas and pheochromocytomas neurofibromatosis
NF2 is often associated with schwannomas, meningiomas and ependymomas.
Craniopharyngioma comprise 8.4% of childhood tumors. A craniopharyngioma is a benign tumor that develops near the pituitary gland (a small endocrine gland at the base of the brain). Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slow-growing tumors. At ANA, we use a relatively new, innovative and less invasive surgical approach called the endonasal endoscopy to treat these types of tumors.
The pineal gland is a small gland located in the back of the base of the brain. Although its purpose is not entirely understood, it is known to create the hormones melatonin and serotonin. The most common type of these tumors in this region are germ cell tumors, which arise from developmental abnormalities, and pineal cell tumors, which arise from normal cells of the pineal gland itself.